We will move into the period of time that Jesus lived on earth. This period will consist of about 30 years from his birth, to crucifixion, to resurrection and then ascension. We will examine this period to test and verify the information leading up to his birth. We find a lot of scripture that substantiates previous periods and societal conditions that we need to put a verification stamp on the period.
The exact date or the time of year of the birth of Jesus Christ is uncertain. Matthew’s Gospel (see Matthew 2:1) records that Jesus was born during the reign of Herod the Great (who died in 4BC). Herod’s decision to order the slaughter of all boys in the Bethlehem area aged two or under when he heard the report of the magi (see Matthew 2:16) suggests that Jesus was born during the two years before the death of Herod.
The birth and childhood of Jesus 6BC – 26AD
6 or 5 BC - Jesus is born in Bethlehem. He is visited by the shepherds at Bethlehem, and consecrated to the LORD at the Temple in Jerusalem. Jesus is visited by the magi at Bethlehem. He and his family escape Herod’s persecution by fleeing to Egypt.
4 BC - Herod the Great dies. Palestine is divided between his three sons – Archelaus, Herod Antipas and Philip.
c.2 BC - Jesus and his family return from Egypt to Nazareth in Lower Galilee.
c.5 AD - Saul (Paul) is born at Tarsus in Cilicia.
6 AD - Archelaus is deposed. Judaea is ruled by a Roman procurator.
c.7 AD - Jesus sets off to visit the Temple in Jerusalem aged 12, rapidly approaching manhood on his thirteenth birthday.
14 AD - Augustus Caesar dies.
26 AD - Pontius Pilate is appointed as Procurator of Judaea.
The ministry of Jesus Summer 26AD – Spring 30AD
Summer 26AD - John the Baptist begins his ministry.
26AD - Jesus is baptized by John in the River Jordan.
26AD - Jesus meets Andrew and his brother Simon.
26AD - Jesus is tempted by the Satan (the ‘accuser’) in the Judean Desert.
Autumn 26AD - Jesus performs his first miracle at a wedding at Cana in Galilee.
Spring 27AD - Jesus goes to Jerusalem for the Passover Festival. He performs many miracles and teaches Nicodemus about spiritual re-birth.
Summer 27AD - Jesus and his disciples baptize in the River Jordan.
27AD - John the Baptist is imprisoned at Machaerus by Herod Antipas.
27AD - Jesus goes north to Galilee. En route he meets the Samaritan woman at Jacob’s Well in Sychar (Shechem).
Autumn 27AD - Jesus is met at Cana by a royal official. Jesus heals his son.
27AD - Jesus raises a widow’s son from death at Nain.
27AD - Jesus calls Simon, Andrew, James and John to be his disciples.
27AD - Jesus heals Simon’s mother-in-law at Capernaum.
27AD - Jesus makes Capernaum the base for his ministry.
27AD - John sends two disciples to ask whether Jesus is the ‘Messiah’.
Winter 27AD - Jesus goes on his first preaching tour in Galilee.
Spring 28AD - Jesus preaches the ‘Sermon on the Mount’ near Capernaum.
28AD - Jesus heals a paralyzed man in Capernaum.
28AD - Jesus calls Levi (Matthew) to be a disciple.
28AD - Jesus’s disciples pick ears of corn on the Sabbath.
28AD - Jesus heals a man in the synagogue at Capernaum on the Sabbath, and the Pharisees begin to plot Jesus’s death.
28AD - Jesus appoints his twelve apostles overlooking the Sea of Galilee.
Summer 28AD - Jesus teaches parables about the ‘Kingdom of God’.
Autumn 28AD - Jesus calms the storm on the Sea of Galilee.
28AD - Jesus sends numerous evil spirits into a herd of pigs near Gadara.
28AD - Jesus brings Jairus’s daughter back to life at Capernaum.
28AD - John the Baptist is beheaded by Herod Antipas at Machaerus.
Winter 28AD - Jesus sends out his twelve disciples across Galilee.
Spring 29AD - Jesus feeds five thousand people in the territory of Decapolis.
29AD - Jesus walks on the waters of the Sea of Galilee.
29AD - Jesus visits the Mediterranean coastal towns of Tyre and Sidon. He heals the daughter of a Phoenician woman.
29AD - Jesus miraculously feeds another four thousand people.
Summer 29AD - Jesus visits Bethsaida and heals a blind man.
29AD - Peter acknowledges that Jesus is the ‘Messiah’ at Caesarea Philippi.
29AD - Jesus is transfigured on the snow-topped Mount Hermon.
29AD - Jesus pays his temple tax to the tax collectors at Caesarea.
Autumn 29AD - Jesus attends the Feast of Tabernacles in Jerusalem. The Pharisees try to stone him for alleged blasphemy. He heals a blind man.
Winter 29AD - Jesus is in Jerusalem for the mid-winter festival of Hanukkah.
29AD - Jesus declares ‘I and the Father are one’. The Jews try to stone him for what they perceive to be blasphemy.
Spring 30AD - Jesus travels east and preaches near the River Jordan.
30AD - Jesus visits Mary and Martha at Bethany. He raises Lazarus from death.
30AD - Eyewitnesses report the event to the Jewish Sanhedrin, who plot to kill Jesus. Jesus escapes secretly to Ephraim with his disciples.
Spring 30AD - The death and resurrection of Jesus
Spring 30 AD - Jesus passes through Jericho on his last journey to Jerusalem. He meets Zacchaeus and heals Bartimaeus – a blind man.
Sunday 2 April - Jesus enters Jerusalem on a donkey. The crowds assembling for the Passover Festival spread palm leaves on the road and greets him as the ‘Messiah’. Jesus and the disciples stay overnight at Bethany.
Monday 3 April - Jesus curses the fig tree for its failure to bear fruit. On arrival in Jerusalem, Jesus enters the outer courtyards of the Temple and drives out the merchants and money-changers.
Tuesday 4 April - Jesus teaches in the shade of Solomon’s Porch, a colonnaded portico on the edge of the Temple courtyard. In the evening, Jesus is anointed with expensive perfume at Bethany.
Wednesday 5 April - Judas Iscariot goes to the chief priests and agrees to betray Jesus.
Thursday 6 April - In the evening, Jesus and his disciples share the Passover meal in an upper room in Jerusalem. Afterwards, Jesus prays in the Garden of Gethsemane at the foot of the Mount of Olives. Jesus is arrested and is held overnight at the house of Annas, one of the chief priests.
Friday 7 April - Jesus is tried before the Jewish council (the ‘Sanhedrin’) at daybreak. He is found guilty of ‘blasphemy’ which the council considers merits the death penalty. Peter follows, but denies three times that he knows Jesus. Jesus is brought before Pontius Pilate in the Praetorium (Herod’s Palace) and is condemned to death for insurrection. He is crucified by the Romans at Golgotha (the ‘Place of the Skull’) on the hill of Calvary just outside the walls of Jerusalem, and is buried in a new tomb belonging to Joseph of Arimathea. The Sabbath day, the first day of the Feast of Passover, begins at dusk.
Saturday 8 April - The tomb is guarded by Roman soldiers during the Sabbath day.
Sunday 9 April - Three women come to anoint Jesus’s body, but find the tomb empty. An angel tells them that Jesus has risen from the dead. The risen Lord Jesus then appears to Mary Magdalene, to two disciples journeying to Emmaus, and to the eleven disciples in the upper room.
One week later - Jesus appears again to the eleven disciples in the upper room and invites Thomas to touch his wounds.
Some time later - After the disciples return to Galilee, Jesus appears to them on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. Jesus cooks breakfast for them and asks Peter to ‘take care of my sheep’.
Forty days later - Jesus blesses the disciples and passes into heaven on the Mount of Olives.
We chose to review this point of history for two fold. One was to present references made by Jesus as contained in the New Testament from the Old Testament giving us validation of the Old Testament scriptures, people’s actions and prophecies. This provides us validation of things provided by Old Testament scripture to support historical events. We take this first validation from an article written by Jews for Jesus.
From start to finish, the New Testament contains quotations, references, allusions and paraphrases of the Old Testament. Sometimes the New Testament follows the Hebrew text; in other cases it more closely follows the translation into Greek of the Old Testament called the Septuagint.
This article lists many references to the Old Testament found on the lips of Jesus in the Gospels. They have been organized by the three divisions of the Old Testament: Torah (Five Books of Moses), Prophets (or Nevi’im), and Writings (or Ketuvim).
When Jesus was tempted
The Torah is foundational to Judaism, and Jesus quoted it often. The first three examples below come from the story of Jesus being tempted by Satan out in the desert. Jesus responds to each temptation by quoting from the Torah, showing the supreme value he placed on it for life, thought and behavior.