Picking back up with Pharaoh Dynasty

We find that Egypt was the making of Mizraim, son of Ham. The name 'Mizraim' is the original name given for Egypt in the Hebrew Old Testament. Hebrews associated Mizraim with the land of Egypt also known as “the land of Hamites” as referred to in Psalm 105:23. In the Old Testament, the twofold form of matzor could signify the two Egypts; Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.

A Correct Chronology by David Down and Dr. John Ashton on January 21, 2010

Because of the ambiguous, and often erroneous nature of the information upon which Egyptian chronology must be calculated, it is not possible to present a full list of Egyptian dynasties and dates.

Assyrian chronology is far more reliable than Egyptian chronology and should be used as the basis for chronological calculations, and as biblical chronology is very specific and is consistent with Assyrian chronology, the Bible also can be used as a reliable source.

The difficulty and uncertainty in assigning dates can be illustrated by the following list for Dynasty 12. The exact lengths of reign are problematical. The figures listed below are as given in the monuments, Manetho, and those assigned by Breasted and Petrie. The conflicting figures may convey to the inexperienced reader the problems facing scholars trying to arrive at correct figures for Egyptian chronology.

The great pyramid of Khufu is usually assigned a date about 2550 B.C., but a more realistic date should be about 1875 B.C. when Abraham visited Egypt. Josephus says that Abraham brought with him from Ur knowledge of astronomy and arithmetic which he taught the Egyptians.

It should be remembered that the monuments do not give the total length of reign, only the year of the king in which his latest monument was erected.

The above list of Manetho is as quoted by Africanus, who gives a total of 160 years to the 12th Dynasty, but as quoted by Eusebius, Manetho assigns a total period of 245 years to the 12th Dynasty, and the Turin Canon assigns 215 years to the dynasty. Obviously, the monuments require a longer reign for Sesostris III and Amenemhet III than the years in the Manetho list. Both Breasted and Petrie assume that copyists have omitted the initial figures for the reigns of these kings in Manetho’s list and read them as three and four respectively. This seems to be a reasonable assumption. Breasted and Petrie have also taken co-regencies into account, reducing the total periods for the dynasty to 212 and 218, respectively.

All these lists assume Amenemhet IV to have succeeded Amenemhet III and to have ruled for nine years after his predecessor’s death, but there is evidence to suggest the former to have been a co-regent during the reign of Amenemhet III rather than after it. The biblical events and dates have therefore been calculated on this basis.

Biblical Chronology

Bible chronology is very specific and for known periods is demonstrably reliable. Earlier periods conflict with traditional dates and are in direct conflict with the theory of evolution. It is not in conflict with the demonstrable facts of science. The theory of evolution would place the origins of life on this planet billions of years ago, but Bible chronology would limit it to 6,000 years ago.

To some it seems incredulous that men should live such an abnormally long time following the creation, but if creation was a fact, we should surely expect that humanity would be much healthier and live longer than it does now after thousands of years of bad habits, wrong diet, and unhealthy lifestyles. The following is a chronological table based on the figures given in the King James Version, which was based on the Hebrew Masoretic text.

Carbonized wheat from Pharaoh’s destruction of Gezer by fire.

*Noah was 600 when the flood started

The flood was a universal worldwide deluge. “The waters prevailed exceedingly on the earth, and all the high hills under the whole heaven were covered. The waters prevailed fifteen cubits upward, and the mountains were covered. And all flesh died that moved on the earth: birds and cattle and beasts and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth, and every man” (Genesis 7:19–21).

The majority of scientists are evolutionists and reject this record, but there are hundreds of highly qualified scientists who consider the available evidence to be more supportive of the record of creation than of the theory of evolution. “The waters prevailed on the earth one hundred and fifty days” (Genesis 7:24), and during that time, with the water and debris swirling to and fro on an enormous scale, forests would have been buried, accounting for the huge coal deposits, and sea life and animals, including dinosaurs, would have been embedded in the geological strata. They have been preserved as fossils.

These strata were not deposited in a slow evolutionary process. Most of the strata are sharply defined, indicating that one layer was suddenly deposited on the layer beneath it. The fossils they contain are not being formed like that today. Their state of preservation can only be accounted for by life-forms being suddenly buried beneath piles of sand and mud. When creatures die today they are scavenged and disintegrate before they can be buried and fossilized, but creatures that were buried in the Flood are mostly well-preserved as fossils.

Mountains before the Flood were likely not originally as high as they are now. Today’s lofty peaks have been thrust up at the end of the Flood by lateral pressures causing the earth to fold, so the amount of water needed to cover all the pre-Flood mountains would have been within possible limits. As the Flood receded, the ocean floors would have sunk, absorbing the water that flowed off the land.

*Abraham was 75 when he left Haran

All air-breathing, land-dwelling life in the world today (including people) must have its origins in the Middle East since the Flood. The dynasties of Egypt and the pyramids must be dated subsequent to the Flood. Full information about the early dynasties of Egypt are scanty and often contradictory, and even the Bible does not provide complete information about all the events subsequent to the Flood. However, the list of patriarchs after the Flood can be considered reliable.

Terah was 70 years old when he sired Abram, Nahor, and Haran (Genesis 11:26), but this must refer to his eldest son, not Abraham.

Some scholars have tried to at least partially reconcile Bible chronology with the extended Egyptian chronology by trying to move the date of the Flood back beyond the biblical date of about 2,300 B.C. In the third century B.C., scholars translated the Hebrew Old Testament into the Greek language which had become the universal language of that time. It is known as the Septuagint, abbreviated as the LXX. Such scholars point out that the LXX adds 100 years to most of the progenitors named in Genesis 5 and 11. So, instead of Genesis 11:14 reading “Salah lived thirty years and begat Eber,” the LXX reads “Sala lived an hundred and thirty years and begot Heber.”

So, which is most likely to be correct? This is not just a scribal error. It is a deliberate attempt by some scribes to alter the text. Either the Hebrew scribes reduced the number of years or the Greek scribes inserted the extra centuries. I can think of no possible motive for the Hebrew scribes to want to reduce the length of years, but I can see why the Greek scribes could want to extend the periods. They were living in the Greek world, which believed in an older earth. It would make the LXX more acceptable to them if the years were extended.

Moreover, it can be demonstrated that the LXX translators were just not good at numbers. The LXX of Genesis 5 says that:

But verse 27 says that “all the days of Methuselah which he lived were 969 years and he died.” That would mean he died 14 years after the Flood, but only eight people survived the Flood in the Ark, and Methuselah was not one of them.

There are other instances of bad arithmetic in the LXX. Numbers 1 details the number of men in each of the 12 tribes of Israel. They add up to 603,450, but verse 46 gives the total 603,550. They got it wrong on the tribe of Reuben. The KJV gives the correct figure for Reuben as 46,500 instead of the LXX figure of 46,400.

In Numbers 26 there is an even more glaring blunder. Again, the tribes are numbered and they add up to 580,630, but the total given in verse 51 is 601,730. They got it wrong again.

Another argument that some scholars raise is that there are some “proven gaps” in the Bible records, so perhaps there are many more gaps that could result in pushing the date of the Flood back thousands of years.

It is true that there are gaps in some Bible genealogies. When the Hebrew text says that someone is the son of someone, it can mean grandson, or great-grandson, or even further back, or where it says that someone begat someone else, it could refer to a grandfather or great-grandfather. So, we have the instance in Matthew 1:8 where the writer says that “Joram begat Ozias.” Three generations in between have been omitted. First Chronicles 3:11–12, gives the names of Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah in between Joram and Ozias (Azariah).