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A Discussion of DNA

This is going to be fun and frustrating at the same time. For some they will understand and accept that in everything of God's creation exists His DNA.


Livescience.com provides the most non-scientific language definition of DNA. It states, “Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce. These instructions are found inside every cell, and are passed down from parents to their children.” Basically, DNA is the life molecule that provides the programming that makes everything work in the physical body.


Livescience.com describes DNA as follows.


DNA structure

DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code. Human DNA has around 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM).


Similar to the way the order of letters in the alphabet can be used to form a word, the order of nitrogen bases in a DNA sequence forms genes, which in the language of the cell, tells cells how to make proteins. Another type of nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or RNA, translates genetic information from DNA into proteins.


Nucleotides are attached together to form two long strands that spiral to create a structure called a double helix. If you think of the double helix structure as a ladder, the phosphate and sugar molecules would be the sides, while the bases would be the rungs. The bases on one strand pair with the bases on another strand: adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine.


DNA molecules are long — so long, in fact, that they can't fit into cells without the right packaging. To fit inside cells, DNA is coiled tightly to form structures we call chromosomes. Each chromosome contains a single DNA molecule. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are found inside the cell's nucleus.

DNA discovery


DNA was first observed by a German biochemist named Frederich Miescher in 1869. But for many years, researchers did not realize the importance of this molecule. It was not until 1953 that James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin figured out the structure of DNA — a double helix — which they realized could carry biological information.


Watson, Crick and Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1962 "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material." Franklin was not included in the award, although her work was integral to the research. [Related: Unraveling the Human Genome: 6 Molecular Milestones]


DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is technology that allows researchers to determine the order of bases in a DNA sequence. The technology can be used to determine the order of bases in genes, chromosomes, or an entire genome. In 2000, researchers completed the first full sequence of the human genome, according to a report by the National Human Genome Research Institute.


DNA testing

A person's DNA contains information about their heritage, and can sometimes reveal whether they are at risk for certain diseases. DNA tests, or genetic tests, are used for a variety of reasons, including to diagnose genetic disorders, to determine whether a person is a carrier of a genetic mutation that they could pass on to their children, and to examine whether a person is at risk for a genetic disease. For instance, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are known to increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and analysis of these genes in a genetic test can reveal whether a person has these mutations.


Genetic test results can have implications for a person's health, and the tests are often provided along with genetic counseling to help individuals understand the results and consequences of the test.


There are now many at-home genetic testing kits, but some of them are unreliable. Also, NBC News reports that people should be careful with these kits, since the tests are essentially handing over a person's genetic code to a stranger.

New research on DNA


DNA research has lead to some interesting, and important findings in the last few years. For example, a 2017 study published in the journal Science found that random mistakes in DNA, not heredity or environmental factors, accounts for two-thirds of cancer mutations in cells.


Yourgenome.org provides us with a layman review of the actual DNA structure.


DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code. Like a recipe book it holds the instructions for making all the proteins in our bodies.

  • Your genome? is made of a chemical called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA for short.

  • DNA contains four basic building blocks or ‘bases?’: adenine? (A), cytosine? (C), guanine? (G) and thymine? (T).

  • The order, or sequence, of these bases form the instructions in the genome.

  • DNA is a two-stranded molecule.


Image credit: Genome Research Limited

DNA has a unique ‘double helix’ shape, like a twisted ladder

  • Each strand is composed of long sequences of the four bases, A, C, G and T.

  • The bases on one strand of the DNA molecule pair together with complementary? bases on the opposite strand of DNA to form the ‘rungs’ of the DNA ‘ladder’.

  • The bases always pair together in the same way, A with T, C with G.

  • Each base pair is joined together by hydrogen bonds?.

  • Each strand of DNA has a beginning and an end, called 5’ (five prime) and 3’ (three prime) respectively.

  • The two strands run in the opposite direction (antiparallel) to each other so that one runs 5’ to 3’ and one runs 3’ to 5’, they are called the sense strand and the antisense strand, respectively.

  • The strands are separated during DNA replication?.

  • The human genome is made of 3.2 billion bases of DNA but other organisms have different genome sizes.

So how does this all this discussion about DNA try us back to God.

Prior to 1953 many theories continued to be developed when two scientists began the study to unlock the genetic mystery of life. The first building block map describing life was established by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953. Through their now famous model of the double helix and the patterns of information held in the DNA molecule, the door was opened to the entire science of identifying individuals on the basis of their unique genetic characteristics. Whether it is eye color, hair color, to gender and tendencies toward certain conditions of health and disease, the codes that determine how our bodies appear and function are held in the blueprint of our genetic code. Since Watson and Crick’s discovery, the science of matching segments of DNA to determine paternity, identify missing persons, and link individuals to a specific crime has become keystone in crime-scene analysis worldwide.


Backing up in time a bit to the fourth Century, we find that scholars have openly acknowledged the editing and deletion of material that was used to establish Church doctrine in 325 C.E. by the panel convened to establish such Church doctrine.1 We find that under the direction of the Roman Emperor Constantine, the individuals who made up the Council of Nice were presented with a daunting task of taking centuries of disparate religious works and converting them into a single document that would be meaningful to the people of the region of their time. Remaining with us today in the form of one of the most powerful and controversial books in the history of mankind and the world, the Holy Bible. In writing the Holy Bible, the Council of Nice found that much of the materials they were presented were redundant and poorly written, with overlapping versions and repeated stories. As a result, the Council recommended that at least 45 documents be removed from their task. Within the 20th Century, many of the books that were removed by the Council during their edits have been recovered, translated and made available to the general public.


One of the most significant archeologist finds of the 20th Century was the discovery of the ancient library hidden in caves above the Dead Sea shores – The Dead Sea Scrolls. Over a ten year span from 1946 to 1956, more than 22,000 fragments of animal hide, copper, and papyrus manuscripts were pieced together, producing about 900 scrolls and revealing the original version of such Old Testament books as Genesis, Isaiah, and the words of Moses. Hershel Shanks, editor of the pioneering journal Biblical Archaeological Review, commented on the significance of the find, stating, “Over 200 biblical manuscripts were hidden in the Qumran caves, some dramatically different from accounts in the Bible.”2 It was not until these scrolls were available for public viewing that the information became to the public at large.


Two years before the finding the Dead Sea Scrolls, another library of ancient writings was discovered. In December 1945, two brothers found a collection of scrolls near the Nile River village of Nag Hammandi, Egypt, which immediately began to change the way we thought of early Christianity. Now kept by the Coptic Museum in Cairo, these writings provide surprising insight into ancient Gnostic and early Christian traditions.


When we consider these two archaeological libraries together they offer perhaps the most complex view of the ancient world and early Christian traditions. They provide us with the ability to fill in the gaps and inconsistencies of the traditional scripture (Holy Bible) written by the Council of Nice. The purpose of bringing this information to our attention is to illustrate the fact that, through the loss of these and similar bodies of information, universal principles that give great meaning to our modern world have been forgotten and prevented us from coming to know about the beginning of life.


Going back even further about 5,000 years or so, we may read the words written by Hebrew scholars precisely, as well as detailed, recording our origins. Through these words, we are given insight into the creation of the universe, the formation of the earth, and finally the origins of our bodies. The best known source and one most reflected upon today of Hebrew knowledge is the collection of mystical writings known collectively as the Kahbalah. While it is referred to by a single name – Kahbalah – it is actually a collection of writings that form the bulk of Hebrew esoteric tradition. The most important writings contained in the Kabalah are believed to be the Zohar (the Book of Radiance), the Midrash (the Book of Illumination), and the Sepher Yetzirah (the Book of Formation) and considered the oldest and perhaps most mysterious aspect of the writings. Jewish scholars believe that the Sepher Yetzirah original text was received directly by the patriarch Abraham. With significant detail, the Sepher Yetzirah’s concise text of only 1,500 lines offers a vivid description of the events leading up to, and including, the birth of the cosmos and ultimately, our bodies. The entire text of the Sepher Yetzirah is written from the perspective of an observer narrating the miracle of God’s works step-by-step. In the first chapter, it begins by stating that our world is the result of three kinds of information and recorded in three distinct volumes: (1) text (Sepher), (2) number (Sephar), and (3) communication (Sippur). From these three books, the text continues: ‘He [God] created His Universe.”3